computers past present and future essay

No, technology isn't making us lonely—it's bringing us closer to each other. others, especially introverts, may prefer to beat loneliness by interacting online.

Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Ehsan Shahbazi , MA degree in applied linguistics. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Writing the Methodology Chapter of Your Dissertation 1. Resources Why are the resources important to conduct the study?

How are you going to use the resources to conduct the study? Ingredients and Cooking Tools What do you need to make pasta with vegetables? Resources What resources do you have or need to conduct the study? Utilization How are you going to use the resources to conduct the study?

Methodology in Thesis, Research Methodology Dissertation, Qualitative Research Help

Decisions Actions Rationale Implication Implementation process Chapter Three Sections Chapter Overview Problem What specific problem do you plan to address? Purpose of the study What do you want to do or find out in the study? Overview What should your readers expect in this chapter? Types of Research Questions Saldana, ; Trochim, Examples Qualitative Research Question How does mental health stigma influence help seeking behaviors among teens with mental health problems in a low income neighborhood in Accra, Ghana?

Quantitative Research Question Is there an effect of mental health stigma on help seeking behaviors among teens with mental health problems in a low income neighborhood in Accra, Ghana? Mixed Methods Research Questions 1. What is the correlation between mental health stigma and help seeking behavior among teens with mental health problems in a low income neighborhood in Accra, Ghana? How do teens with mental health problem seek for help or mental heath services? For students, this can be a difficult section to write, especially since its purpose may not always be clear.

Ph.D. Research Methodology: Mentoring & Rewriting Guidance

For example, if you have carried out interviews, you do not need to list all the different types of research interview. You also do not need to describe the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, or list all different kinds of validity and reliability. What you must do is to show how your choice of design and research method is suited to answering your research question s. Demonstrate that you have given due consideration to the validity and reliability of your chosen method. This way, the method section is not only able to tie the different parts of your thesis together, it also becomes interesting to read!

Your analysis, along with your discussion, will form the high light of your thesis. This is where you report your findings and present them in a systematic manner. The expectations of the reader have been built up through the other chapters, make sure you fulfill these expectations. To analyse means to distinguish between different types of phenomena — similar from different. Importantly, by distinguishing between different phenomena, your theory is put to work.


  • nietzsche genealogy of morals essay 1 section 13;
  • Sections of a thesis;
  • How to create PhD theses: materials and methods.

Precisely how your analysis should appear, however, is a methodological question. Finding out how best to organise and present your findings may take some time. In this case it will be important to choose analytical categories that correlate to your chosen theory. Engaging emotions is not the main point, but a way to elucidate the phenomenon so that the reader understands it in a new and better way.

In many thesis the discussion is the most important section. Make sure that you allocate enough time and space for a good discussion. This is your opportunity to show that you have understood the significance of your findings and that you are capable of applying theory in an independent manner. The discussion will consist of argumentation. In other words, you investigate a phenomenon from several different perspectives. To discuss means to question your findings, and to consider different interpretations.

Here are a few examples of formulations that signal argumentation:. The final section of your thesis may take one of several different forms.

Some theses need a conclusion, while for others a summing up will be appropriate. Open research questions cannot always be answered, but if a definite answer is possible, you must provide a conclusion. The conclusion should answer your research question s. Remember that a negative conclusion is also valid. A summing up should repeat the most important issues raised in your thesis particularly in the discussion , although preferably stated in a slightly different way.

Service description

For example, you could frame the issues within a wider context. In the final section you should place your work in a wider, academic perspective and determine any unresolved questions. During the work, you may have encountered new research questions and interesting literature which could have been followed up. At this point, you may point out these possible developments, while making it clear for the reader that they were beyond the framework of your current project.

There should be a strong connection between your conclusion and your introduction. All the themes and issues that you raised in your introduction must be referred to again in one way or another. If you find out at this stage that your thesis has not tackled an issue that you raised in the introduction, you should go back to the introduction and delete the reference to that issue. An elegant way to structure the text is to use the same textual figure or case in the beginning as well as in the end. When the figure returns in the final section, it will have taken on a new and richer meaning through the insights you have encountered, created in the process of writing.

How to write papers that get cited and proposals that get funded.


  • essay on uses of internet in education.
  • reconstructing dreamland thesis?
  • Importance of a Good Methodology Section.
  • abstract writing of research paper.
  • writing language analysis essay.

New York: Oxford University Press. You need to not only show that you're capable of detaching yourself from your own creative work and viewing it through an objective lens, but that you are able to see your own creative practice as methodology — as a method of creating work that is grounded in theory and research and that can be evaluated against clear target goals. No part of your dissertation should be hermetically sealed off from the others, and there will undoubtedly be some overlap between your methodology and literature review section, for example.

You might even find yourself moving material back and forth between sections during edits.

But you should resist the temptation to include the following in your dissertation methodology, even if they seem to belong there quite naturally:. It's likely you'll want to refer to precedents for your dissertation methodology, and to the theorists or practitioners upon whose work it is based, as you describe your own methodology. However, this is not the place for an exhaustive review of methodologies you're not using — that work belongs in your literature review chapter , and you should refer back to that chapter for context on why you're taking or not taking a particular approach.

Your methodology section should equip a reader to reproduce your research, but it should also be a readable chapter of your dissertation and should retain the interest of somebody who doesn't necessarily want to reproduce your experiment from start to finish. If it's possible to convey all the information another scholar would need in order to recreate your work in the body of your dissertation, do so; however if your methodology section starts to look like a shopping list, you should move some very detailed content into an appendix and refer to that.

The methodology section is not the place to reproduce any data, even if you're illustrating how a questionnaire or other data-gathering mechanic works. Again, you can place such information in an appendix and refer to it. When you start your dissertation project, you may already have some broad ideas about the methodology you want to use.

You'll refine these ideas in conversation with your supervisor and develop them further as you read about the previous work that has been done in your field, and other scholars' approach to your subject area. If you're completing a postgraduate dissertation , the chances are you already have a broad awareness of the different theoretical positions and schools of thought in your field, and you may well have a good idea of the schools of thought with which you most closely identify and, just as importantly, those you don't identify with.

If you're writing an undergraduate dissertation , this may very well be the first time you've been asked to engage with such a broad field of literature, and categorising this into distinct approaches and schools of thought may seem like an overwhelming task at first.

Regardless of your level, your dissertation methodology will develop as you review the literature in your field and refine your initial research questions. Your literature review and methodology will therefore develop in tandem with each other. Your response to the literature will help you decide on the approach you want to take to your research question, but your methodology will probably already be decided by the time you actually write up your literature review, meaning that you can frame it so as to position the methodology as a clear, organic and natural progression from your survey of the field.

It should be noted, of course, that your methodology won't only be determined by the modes of inquiry or schools of thought that appeal to you most; there are likely to be practical considerations that determine how you approach your problem. Unless you happen to have access to a particle accelerator at your university, the chances are your quantum physics project will be based on theoretical projections rather than physical experimental data. The answer to this question depends in part upon whether you're writing an undergraduate or postgraduate dissertation.

For most students, an undergraduate dissertation is their first opportunity to engage in detail with scholarship in their fields and to design and conduct a rigorous research project. In an undergraduate dissertation, you therefore need to show a capacity to engage with a broad field of research, to synthesise diverse and even opposing approaches to a problem, and to distil this down into a design for a research project that will address your research questions with the appropriate level of scholarly level.

The ability to synthesise what you've learned from scholars in your discipline, and to shape that into a methodology that you can use to shed light on your research question, is, therefore, key to a successful undergraduate dissertation. The best undergraduate dissertations will of course show originality of thought and may even be able to make an original contribution to their field — but the focus will generally be on demonstrating that you have the fundamental research skills to undertake investigative work in your field.

A postgraduate dissertation , by contrast, can be expected to make a substantial contribution of high-quality, original research to its field. The best postgraduate dissertations will be publishable by leading journals, or even as scholarly monographs. As you build your career as an early career researcher, the impact of your dissertation on its field — as measured by citations in the work of other scholars — will be crucial to enhancing your academic reputation. It's important to remember that the dissertation's value to other scholars won't just be its findings or conclusions, and that your research's emerging importance to the field will be measured by the number of scholars who engage with it, not those who agree with it.

Dissertation Writing Help: How Do You Write a Methodology Chapter?

Although some scholars may well cite your conclusions as a basis for their own work, a far greater number of citations is likely to result regardless of discipline from your development of a framework that other scholars can use as a point of departure for their own work. If you've come up with a methodology that is both original and grounded in the research, this will probably be the aspect of your work that other scholars value the most. Their own work might build upon, develop or modify your methodology in some way; they might apply your methodology to a different data set in order to contest your findings, or they might even take it and apply it in a new context that hadn't even occurred to you!

The best postgraduate dissertations are those that convince at every level — that are based on a rigorous engagement with the field, that develop reproducible frameworks for engaging with that field, and that supply high-quality and convincing results and conclusions. But the methodology is the central point around which the dissertation — and its potential impact to the field — pivots. When developing and presenting your dissertation methodology, you should therefore think not just about how well it can answer your particular question, but also about how transferable it is — whether it can be used by other scholars to answer related questions, or whether it can be made more adaptable with just a few tweaks without compromising your own use of it, of course.

And when presenting your dissertation, don't forget to emphasise the value of the methodological framework you develop, if it is indeed adaptable to other related contexts.


  • research papers death penalty?
  • What to Include in the METHODOLOGY Chapter of Your Thesis!
  • write discursive essay structure.
  • What to Include in the METHODOLOGY Chapter of Your Thesis - jofadakonisa.ml;
  • Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 6. The Methodology;
  • Dissertation Methodology | Advice | jofadakonisa.ml.
  • Three Secrets Of Writing A PhD Thesis Methodology Section.

You're underselling your research if you suggest its only value lies in its conclusions, when the approach it takes to your data or source material in arriving at those conclusions is potentially of equal if not greater value. Your dissertation methodology, as we've now discussed in some detail, is the engine that drives your dissertation, and as such it needs to be grounded, theoretically rigorous, and, where possible, sufficiently adaptable to be used in other contexts to answer different research questions within your field. However, in focusing on all this it's easy to forget that all dissertations — even the seemingly driest, most scientific of them — are fundamentally pieces of persuasive writing: their primary purpose is to convince readers of the quality of your research, the validity of your methods, and the merit of your conclusions.

A crucial but often neglected component of this persuasive function is the role of rhetoric in persuading your audience of the merits of your work. This kind of commentary allows you to control the agenda for discussion of your work, and to head off potential objections to your arguments and methods at the pass.