Accordingly, it has become increasingly important to address these common EFL challenges in order to help EFL teachers create an interactive class where learners may develop their communicative abilities. Scholars like Savignon and Richards and Rodgers stated that the goal of CLT is to establish a meaningful communication of a language. Therefore, this study designed a unit that integrates the CLT principles and activities to promote a meaningful communication process inside EFL classrooms.
It aims to help Arab EFL teachers nurture their vision of a unit plan mechanism, while simultaneously considering the learners' needs and goals.
Communicative Language Teaching Clt English Language Essay
Al-Khafaji, Rana Saad. Advanced Search. Al-Khafaji, Rana Saad. Advanced Search.
- essay junk food in schools.
- Language Learning & Technology!
- affirmative action essay against;
- college entry essay prompts.
- The Push towards Communicative Language Teaching and its Impact on the Korean Classroom?
- inclusion exclusion criteria dissertations;
Privacy Copyright. Skip to main content. Author Rana Saad Al-Khafaji. Abstract EFL textbooks in countries of the Arab region have introduced the communicative language teaching CLT approach as a way to improve learners English fluency. Thus, the language teachers should use any of these video materials which may be available at school or which they can make themselves. They can also refer to some great broadcasting institutions aiming at teaching English language for example and which may provide them with some of these materials. It is of a great communicative value to use video films in language teaching.
Therefore, Lonergan op cit. Therefore, the communication can be shown in a context, and various features of communicative language can be perceived easily by the learner. However, he adds that, for many teachers, working with video recorders and cameras is a new experience. Therefore, teachers should do their best to be confident in handling and using the video equipment in language teaching. Unfortunately, video, especially when used at home has got such strong connotations of entertainment that many learners, when watching video language teaching materials, expect that they are entertaining.
Therefore, computer can be used in various areas of language teaching process such as listening comprehension, speaking, writing, vocabulary, and phonetics. Talking about computer and teaching phonetics, for example, Leech and Candlin , cited in Muvandimwe , p. Furthermore, Muvandimwe op cit. Therefore, schools, especially those concerned much with language teaching, should manage to bring some of computer programs designed for teaching and learning language. The third chapter of this study describes the methods, and procedures used by the researcher throughout the study.
As it is said by Baily in Ndikubwimana , there are different methods of collecting data and they differ from one to another. Therefore, the chapter discussed the design of the study, area of the study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instruments of data collection, validity of the instrument, method of data collection, method of data analysis, and limitations of the study. Hutton , p. Then, Rosier , p. Therefore, this research was a survey study since it is concerned with the exploration of the extent to which English language learners, in secondary schools' letters option, are communicatively competent and the factors that influence their competence in communicative English language.
To achieve the objectives of this study the researcher decided to conduct the research in secondary schools having the letters option. However, the study was not done on all those schools in Rwanda, but in those located in Rusizi and Nyamasheke districts. These districts are located in the Southern West of Rwanda and they have four schools with letters option namely. The table below shows these schools and their locations. Table 1: Schools used in the research. The population of the study is composed of all students and teachers of English in the literary option of the schools located in Rusizi and Nyamasheke districts.
The schools in respect with this study have students who are in the literary option and 4 teachers of English. The table below shows the number of students and teachers of English in the schools concerned with this study. Table 2: The number of students and teachers of English who make the population.
The table below shows the number of students, in the literary option of schools concerned with the study, according to their respective classes. Table 3: The number of students who make the population according to their classes. According to Manheim and Richards , p. Similarly, as it was not possible to use the whole population, what should be done to find more valid information, the researcher resorted to the sampling technique in order to find a small part that can represent the population.
As far as sample and sampling techniques are concerned, the first and important thing to do is to determine the sample size to use. That is to say that, 73 students is the sample to be selected from all students. For the teachers of English in the literary option, they were all selected because there is almost one teacher in each school only. This shows that the whole sample size is supposed to be made of 77 persons including students and teachers.
Talking about the sample and the sampling techniques used in this research, one can first mention the class of 5 th form which was selected through judgemental or purposive sampling technique. This technique consists of giving to a given subject more chance to be selected because of its special characteristics which can enable the researcher to reach his objectives more easily. Blaxter, Hughes, and Tight say that the purposive sampling is a handpicking of supposedly typical or interesting cases. Therefore, at this level all students of the 5 th forms were selected because this is the only class whose students are mature enough and which can be found in all schools concerned with the study.
Secondly, the simple random sampling technique was used in order to select 73 students from all students of the 5 th forms. The sampling technique used here consists of giving equal chance to all members of a group to be selected. Therefore, to do this, students' class numbers were written on pieces of paper, and then mixed in a container from which they were picked one by one until the desired number of students for the sample was selected. This technique was used because there is only one teacher of English who teaches in the literary option in each school.
No customer reviews
That is to say that 4 teachers were used in this study. The table below shows the sample used in each school. That is to say the number of students and teachers selected in each school. In order to collect data used in this research, the questionnaire and the test were used as the research instruments. As says Kalu , the questionnaire is an instrument of data collection which elicits responses from respondents of the research through a series of questions or statements put together with specific aim in mind.
Therefore, the researcher decided to use a structured questionnaire which consists of restricting the respondent to respond to questions in the manner and extent required. This type of questionnaire was used to avoid long-sentence responses from respondents which could impede the analysis of collected data. The test was used in this research to measure the extent to which students of the literary option are aware of how language can be properly used in friendly communication.
Therefore, the test consisted of matching each element of one column to its corresponding element in the other column. The first column was made of a series of phrases that are often used in friendly communication, and the second column was made of a series of communicative situations in which these phrases are used. Then, all students who were used as respondents of the questionnaire sat also for this test. According to Kalu validity is the appropriateness of an instrument in measuring what it is intended to measure.
Therefore, in order to determine the validity of the instruments used, the researcher asked one English teacher at University to check whether the question items of the questionnaire and those of the test were really designed in accordance to the research questions and hypotheses. Then, three students taken from the researcher's class fellows were asked to respond to the questionnaire and to do the test so that they may help him foretell problems that would hinder real respondents from providing necessary information. Finally, comments provided by these validators were used to make the final version of these research instruments.
Talking about the collection of data, Blaxter, Hughes, and Tight , p. However, despite the shortage of time, the researcher decided to administer the questionnaire himself. This was helpful because whenever respondents had difficulties in comprehension of the question items I was ready to help them. This method was not much used for teachers because they were supposed to have fewer difficulties to understand the questionnaire than students.
In addition they should feel bothered by controlling over them like students. Therefore, they responded to the questionnaire freely. As far as the test is concerned, the teacher who would be teaching at the time of giving the test was used to supervise the class. This was done to avoid any attempt of cheating among students, what might have corrupted the originality of the information drown from that test.
All students, already selected, were given the same time to respond to the questionnaire and to do the test; therefore, the researcher collected copies of those who had already finished up to the time that was fixed. Therefore, out of 77 copies of questionnaire that were given to students and teachers, 77 copies were collected. Then, out of 73 copies of test that were given to students, 73 copies were collected.
In this research, the quantitative method of data analysis was used because both the questionnaire and the test used as instruments of data collection could easily provide necessary information in numbers. After collecting data, computer softwares designed for data analysis were used. These are the Epidata 3. To have this done, data were, first, entered in Epidata 3.
Then, they were exported in SPSS where they were analysed. Through this analysis, tables of frequency and mean were provided in accordance to each question item of the questionnaire or from the results obtained by different students in the test they did. Having noticed that, the researcher tried to ensure them that the information they provided would be confidential and that he was not doing an enquiry.
This caused the researcher to arrive in some schools so late that he used to meet some teachers at their homes and to meet students in evening studying time. Therefore, the researcher managed to explain them that the indirect benefit they would get from the completion of this study is greater and more durable than the direct one. This chapter deals with the presentation of data, the analysis and the interpretation of findings. It presents the data from respondents collected through questionnaires and the test. The questionnaires targeted respectively students and English Teachers in the literary option whereas the test targeted students only.
Therefore, some of tables illustrate findings from both teachers and students while others illustrate those from students only. Then, all the headings and subheadings that make this chapter are structured according to the questionnaire items and the distribution of results from the test among different groups of student who have sat for it. Answers from respondents were used to, both, answer to the research questions and test the hypotheses of the research. For the sake of clarity and simplicity, it is to be mentioned that percentages were presented in the tables as they were exactly calculated but, for decimal numbers, only one decimal was presented while the following ones were rounded up.
For instance, instead of writing Learners' Use of English in Real-life Communication. As far as the students' use of English in real-life communication is concerned, the researcher focused on investigating the following points: the extent to which students are interested in using English in real-life communication, how they feel when speaking English outside the classroom and what they consider more important; either accuracy, fluency or the mixture of the both when they are speaking.
To be communicatively competent, E. Therefore, the following table illustrates the extent to which E. The table 5 reveals that a small percentage of However, a great percentage of On the other side, a hundred percent of teachers agreed that students are sometimes interested in using English in real-life communication. From these findings it is noticed that students are poorly interested in using English in real-life communication. However, Littlewood , p. Therefore, it is to be mentioned that this students' poor interest in using English in real-life communication should be caused by these students' lack of motivation in using foreign languages in general and English in particular.
The feeling of a language learner when he is speaking that language has a great relationship with his communicative competence. Therefore, the following table shows how E. That is, whether they feel proud or shy when speaking English. Table 6: Students' feeling when speaking English out of the classroom setting. As it is shown in table 6, On the other side, a hundred percent of teachers confirmed that students feel shy when they are speaking English out side of classroom. This contradiction between students and teachers' answers should be due to the fact that some students did not want to reveal their weakness especially thinking that their schools would be negatively criticized thereafter.
Then, relying much on the teachers' assertion, one can say that students are generally shy when using English outside the classroom. These problems are the following: inhibition, nothing to say, low or uneven participation, and the mother tongue use. This means that, if an E. As say Richards, Platt and Platt , p. Therefore, to be communicatively competent, a language learner needs to be both accurate and fluent when he is speaking.
The following table shows what students prefer from accuracy, fluency and the mixture of accuracy and fluency. Table 7: Students' choice between accuracy and fluency. The table 7 above presented shows that However, a small percentage of Then, On the other side, a hundred percent of teachers said that all students consider much more accuracy than fluency when they speak. The fact that there is a small number of students who regard fluency as an element of great importance in their speech allows the researcher to confirm that students' communicative competence in conversational English is low.
This point of view goes hand in hand with that of Richards et al , p. Talking about the language teaching aids, the researcher wanted to know the extent to which schools access on audio-visual equipment, how schools use this equipment and the extent to which teachers and students judge audio-visual equipment important in E. Availability of Audio-visual Equipment in Schools. All secondary schools do not possess or access on audio-visual equipment equally.
Therefore, the table below shows the extent to which schools own the equipment such as radio, video player, CD player and computer. Table 8: Availability of audio-visual equipment in schools. A glance at the above table shows that In addition Then, only Moreover, However, no English teacher agreed that CD player is available in his school. The reasons for this may be that they are not interested in using such equipment, hence they cannot know whether they are available or not.
In this light, it is clear that all schools own sufficient audio-visual teaching aids. This sufficient ownership of the teaching aids should result in students' sufficient practice of English language for communicative purposes. These findings go hand in hand with the idea of Locatis and Atkinson who say that audio media such as radio, record player and tape recorder are available in most households and many people have sophisticated audio equipment in their homes.
Therefore, it is worth knowing whether the available equipment is used for language teaching purposes. Teaching and Learning. As all schools do not access on audio-visual equipment, all schools that have that access do not use this equipment in language teaching purposes. Therefore, the table below shows the extent to which schools use audio-visual equipment in language teaching purposes. The above table shows that Then, only 8. The reason for this may be that students use this equipment outside English class in their spare time for example or in other courses. However, this poor use of audio-visual equipment in language teaching is very dangerous in development of students' communicative competence in conversational English.
This is not far from the writings of Lonergan saying that with video player, the combination of sounds and vision is dynamic, immediate and accessible. Therefore, the communication can be shown in a context and various features of communicative language can be perceived easily by the learner.
Then, it is to wonder whether both teachers and students are aware of the importance of using audio-visual equipment in language teaching. Students and teachers do not have the same view on the importance of using audio-visual equipment in English teaching and learning process.
The following table shows the level at which students and teachers agree that using audio-visual equipment in E. From the result of this table, it is clearly shown that Only Conversely, Therefore, it is to be mentioned that both students and E. It means that the poor use of this equipment is due to others factors but not to the fact that they ignore the importance of this.
Teachers' Focus on Oral Skills when Teaching. As far as the E. Writing, reading, speaking and listening are known as four traditional language skills and all language learners are supposed to have sufficient knowledge on each of these skills. However, some language teachers do not take these skills at the equal footing in their teaching activity. Therefore, two tables below show respectively students and teachers' views on the extent to which E. Table The views of students about their teachers' emphasis on some of the four skills. The table above shows that However, 5.
As far as reading is concerned, The same percentage said that reading is often emphasised. In the same way Concerning speaking skill, 9. A great percentage of On the contrary, For the listening skill, Conversely, a great percentage of Table The views of teachers about their emphasis on some of the four skills. From the findings in table 11 and table 12, it is clear that the most emphasised skills are writing and reading while speaking and listening are neglected.
This implies that students' communicative competence in conversational English cannot be well developed. The researcher wanted to know the extent to which the lesson on oral skills is prepared and taught by E. Therefore, the following table shows the time during which E. Table The frequency at which oral skills are taught. The above table reveals that 9. In the same way, a great percentage of students and teachers said that the lesson on oral skills is sometimes given. That is Nevertheless, In fact, taking into consideration the importance of oral skills in developing students' communicative competence, insufficient frequency of planning a lesson on oral skills may result in serious problem to the development of communicative competence in conversational English.
This is not in disparity with the findings of Ur who says that speaking seems intuitively the most important of all the four skills. A language teacher may be interested in developing his students' oral skills but have difficulty to balance the emphasis to be given to each of these skills. That is why the table below is used to show the emphasis on either speaking or listening in E.
Contrary to this, This cannot help in developing communicative competence because the latter involves the development of both proactive and receptive skills. In this light, emphasizing speaking which is one of the productive skills, and ignoring or neglecting listening which is one of receptive skills, is a serious problem in language learning for communicative purposes.
In this way, these findings derive support from Byrne who states that oral communication is a two way process between speaker and listener involving the productive skills of speaking and receptive skills of understanding. Having remarked that some language skills are given much emphasis while others are neglected, the researcher wanted to know the factors influencing teachers in deciding which skills to insist on when teaching English.
He used the table below to show the extent to which teachers agree that each of these factors affects the teachers' decision on the skills to give much emphasis in the language teaching process. Table Factors influencing teachers' choice of language skills to emphasise. From these findings, it is to be confirmed that the way English national exams are constructed is the main factor influencing the teachers' choice of the skills which they put emphasis on. The second factor is the availability of instructional aids.
That is, having seen that that writing and reading are skills that are given much emphasis in E. Then, it may be that instructional aids that are available in schools are not put on E. If teachers are still deciding what to teach in accordance with what are likely to be the main concern of the national exam and if they do not use modern instructional aids effectively, students will always be unable to use English language in real-life communication. Littlewood says that the learner should have access to situations where the language is used as a natural means of communication.
Therefore, according to him, more fortunate learners may avoid anxiety when using the second language, by establishing friendly contacts in that language environment. Based on this the reseacher designed a test intending to know whether E. The following table shows the mean and the standard deviation calculated from the students' marks in the test. Then, these marks are used to illustrate the students' ability to use E. Table The mean of students' marks from the test. Marks obtained by students out of 20 x. The table 16 shows the mean calculated from the students' results is 6.
Knowing that the test has been done out of 20, the calculated mean is very low. This implies that these students do not use English language in real-life communicational context such as in friendly communication. It is worth to mention that this poor communicative competence is due to various factors; but to be clear and concise, the researcher wanted to find out different factors which might influence the students' ability to use English in situations related to friendly communication.
These factors are the following: sex, students' residence area and their family literacy. The table below shows the mean and the standard deviation calculated from marks obtained respectively by female and male students who sat for the test. Table The mean of female and male students' marks. The table 16 reveals that the mean calculated from 21 female students' results is 6. On the contrary, the mean calculated from 52 male students' results is 5. From these findings, it is to be mentioned that neither female nor male students are communicatively competent in conversational English because none of these groups got the mean of 10 out of However, a significant difference exists between the mean of female students and that of male students who sat for the test.
Even though there is no clear reason for this difference between girls and boys' results in the test, one can try to guess the reason: It may be that a great number of boys who did the test do not like to use English when conversing with their friends. They may have difficult to find particular words or phrases to use appropriately to a given situation or context.
This is so because boys like freedom more than girls. Boys may like to speak paying less attention on the appropriateness of their speech. The following table shows the mean and the standard deviation calculated from marks obtained respectively by students from rural residence area and those from urban residence area. Table The mean of students' marks according to their residence area. The above table shows that the mean calculated from the results of 43 students from rural areas, is 6.
However, the mean calculated from the results of 30 students from urban areas, is 6. A glance at these findings allows the researcher to say that there is no significant difference between students from rural areas and those from urban areas in using English in real-life communication. This assertion is proved by the fact that none of these two groups got 10 out of This poor communicative competence between both students from urban areas and those from rural areas is a serious problem which may be due to the fact that all of them find it easier to communicate through the mother tongue that to use English.
However, students from urban areas should be more communicative competence in conversational English than counterparts because they have some facilities that should enable them to overcome this problem. For example, those facilities are: they frequently encounter people who do not use Kinyarwanda to communicate, they have sufficient access on radio, television and video in their homes, and they can use these series of equipment for language learning; many of them may have also learning evening programmes where they speak English their home tutors.
Hence, relying on these findings, the second hypothesis is retained. The following table shows the mean and the standard deviation calculated from marks obtained by students from families with different levels of literacy. Table The mean of students' marks according to their families' literacy. The above table shows that 29 students whose families have at least one person who attended university or any other educational institution, got the mean of 7. Then, 52 students whose families have at least one person who finished the secondary school have the mean of 6.
Finally, 23 students from families where all other members finished the primary school only, have the mean of 4. From these results, it is worth to mention that the level of literacy in students' families is an important factor that influences students' communicative competence in conversational English. That is why the third hypothesis i rejected. The fourth chapter, which is the core of this study, is concerned with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of research data. Through this chapter the emphasis was put on checking whether E. In this regard, the researcher wanted to check the extent to which learners use English in real-life communication.
He wanted also to show the impact of teachers' use of teaching aids on the learners' communicative competence in conversational English. Then, he tried to exhibit the language skills that are given much emphasis by teachers and some of the factors that influence them in choosing skills to insist on. Finally, it was noticed that E. The preceding chapter has dealt with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data obtained from students and English teachers in schools with the literary option in Rusizi and Nyamasheke districts.
Then, this chapter is going to deal with conclusion, recommendations and suggestions for future researches. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the communicative competence in conversational English among English Language Learners in the Literary Option. To have this goal reached, two instruments for data collection: the questionnaire and the test were resorted to. As far as data analysis is concerned, specific software such as EPIDATA and SPSS designed for data analysis have been used based on the responses provided by the research informants, that is, by both students and English teachers.
Through the respondents' answers this study revealed that students are not interested in using E. The reason for this may be that students have no motivation in using foreign languages in general and English in particular. This relates also to the fact that many students feel shy when using English outside the classroom. All these imply that many students have poor communicative competence in conversational English which is also due to their choice of accuracy by ignoring fluency which is, instead, an important component of an effective oral communication.
In addition, from the findings of this study, it was noticed that all schools own audio-visual teaching aids but teachers do not resort to them for E. However, both students and teachers are aware of a paramount importance of using audio-visual equipment in E. Furthermore, it was found that writing and reading are the most emphasised skills in E.
This may be caused by the way English national exams are constructed; that is, these exams have nothing to do with students' competence in oral skills. Then, teachers are not familiar with language teaching aids designed for oral skills development.
Finally, students' poor communicative competence is shown by their failing marks in the test on their ability to use English in friendly communication. Then, it was found that sex and students residence area are not significant factors to students' communicative competence. However, the level of literacy in students' families influences significantly the students' communicative competence in conversational English.
After having drawn the conclusion of this study's findings, it is worth making some recommendations to different educational stakeholders in order to help secondary school students in general and particularly those of the literary option; improve their communicative competence in conversational English in case the made recommendations are taken into account. Teachers in the Literary Option.
Practical Knowledge Growth in Communicative Language Teaching
Suggestion for Further Researches. As this work is not exhaustive, future studies would be concerned with the following areas:. Abbott, G. The Teaching of English as an International language. London: Biddles Ltd. Allen, R. The Pragmatics of Public Communication. Ohio: Bell and Howell Company. Bailey, K. Practical English Language Teaching : Speaking. Blaxter, L. How to Research. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Broughton et al Brumfit, C. The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP. Canale, M. The Practice of English Language Teaching.
London: Longman Group Limited. DeSantis, A. Introduction to Communications. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. Gamble, T. Communication Works. New York: McGraw Hill. International Student Edition Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners.
- Much more than documents..
- Home - Language Learning and Technology.
- STORRE: A study of the integration of literature and communicative language teaching.
- The Push towards Communicative Language Teaching and its Impact on the Korean Classroom!
- essays for nursing school applications?
- research papers fringe benefits;
- angela hubler phd thesis.
London: Macmillan Publishers Limited. Johnson, K. Communication in the Classroom. London: Longman Group. Kennedy, C. English for Specific Purposes. Kilfoil, W. Leech, G. A Communicative Grammar of English. Harlow: Longman. Locatis, C. Media and Technology for Education and Training. Manheim, J. New York: Longman Publishing Group. NCS Third Census of Population and Housing: August Kigali: Ministry of Local Administration. Reid, J. The Process of Paragraph Writing. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Revell, J. Teaching Techniques for Communicative English. London: Macmillan Press.
Richards, J. Language and Communication. New York: Longman Group limited. Rivers, W. Communicating Naturally in a Second Language.
Cambridge: C. Ashworth, M. Rechercher sur le site:. Sex of students N Mean Female students 21 6. Students' residence area N Mean Rural residence area 43 6 Urban residence area 30 6. Disponible en mode multipage. Student's signature May God bless all of you! Background of the Study 1 1. Statement of the Problem 2 1. Choice of the Topic 3 1.