A more specific definition would state that climate is the mean state and variability of these features over some extended time period.
Both definitions acknowledge that the weather is always changing, owing to instabilities in the atmosphere. And as weather varies from day to day, so too does climate vary, from daily day-and-night cycles up to periods of geologic time hundreds of millions of years long. In a very real sense, climate variation is a redundant expression—climate is always varying.
Causes of Climate Change
No two years are exactly alike, nor are any two decades, any two centuries, or any two millennia. This article addresses the concept of climatic variation and change within the set of integrated natural features and processes known as the Earth system. The nature of the evidence for climate change is explained, as are the principal mechanisms that have caused climate change throughout the history of Earth.
Finally, a detailed description is given of climate change over many different timescales, ranging from a typical human life span to all of geologic time. For full treatment of the most critical issue of climate change in the contemporary world, see global warming. The atmosphere is influenced by and linked to other features of Earth , including oceans , ice masses glaciers and sea ice , land surfaces, and vegetation.
Together, they make up an integrated Earth system, in which all components interact with and influence one another in often complex ways. Earth scientists and atmospheric scientists are still seeking a full understanding of the complex feedbacks and interactions among the various components of the Earth system. This effort is being facilitated by the development of an interdisciplinary science called Earth system science. A full understanding of the Earth system requires knowledge of how the system and its components have changed through time.
The pursuit of this understanding has led to development of Earth system history, an interdisciplinary science that includes not only the contributions of Earth system scientists but also paleontologists who study the life of past geologic periods , paleoclimatologists who study past climates , paleoecologists who study past environments and ecosystems , paleoceanographers who study the history of the oceans , and other scientists concerned with Earth history.
Because different components of the Earth system change at different rates and are relevant at different timescales, Earth system history is a diverse and complex science. Students of Earth system history are not just concerned with documenting what has happened; they also view the past as a series of experiments in which solar radiation , ocean currents , continental configurations, atmospheric chemistry, and other important features have varied.
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Climate change can involve both changes in average conditions and changes in variability, including, for example, extreme events. The earth's climate is naturally variable on all time scales. However, its long-term state and average temperature are regulated by the balance between incoming and outgoing energy, which determines the Earth's energy balance. Any factor that causes a sustained change to the amount of incoming energy or the amount of outgoing energy can lead to climate change.
Different factors operate on different time scales, and not all of those factors that have been responsible for changes in earth's climate in the distant past are relevant to contemporary climate change.
In addition to natural causes of climate change, changes internal to the climate system, such as variations. In ocean currents or atmospheric circulation, can also influence the climate for short periods of time. This natural internal climate variability is superimposed on the long-term forced climate change. The Earth's climate can be affected by natural factors that are external to the climate system, such as changes in volcanic activity, solar output, and the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Of these, the two factors relevant on timescales of contemporary climate change are changes in volcanic activity and changes in solar radiation.
In terms of the Earth's energy balance, these factors primarily influence the amount of incoming energy. Volcanic eruptions are episodic and have relatively short-term effects on climate.
Changes in solar irradiance have contributed to climate trends over the past century but since the Industrial Revolution, the effect of additions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere has been over 50 times that of changes in the Sun's output. Climate change can also be caused by human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and the conversion of land for forestry and agriculture.
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Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, these human influences on the climate system have increased substantially. In addition to other environmental impacts, these activities change the land surface and emit various substances to the atmosphere. These in turn can influence both the amount of incoming energy and the amount of outgoing energy and can have both warming and cooling effects on the climate.
The dominant product of fossil fuel combustion is carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas.
Effects of global warming
The overall effect of human activities since the Industrial Revolution has been a warming effect, driven primarily by emissions of carbon dioxide and enhanced by emissions of other greenhouse gases. The build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to an enhancement of the natural greenhouse effect. It is this human-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect that is of concern because ongoing emissions of greenhouse gases have the potential to warm the planet to levels that have never been experienced in the history of human civilization.
Carbon dioxide is the main cause of human-induced climate change. It has been emitted in vast quantities from the burning of fossil fuels and it is a very long-lived gas, which means it continues to affect the climate system during its long residence time in the atmosphere. However, fossil fuel combustion, industrial processes, agriculture, and forestry-related activities emit other substances that also act as climate forcers.
Some, such as nitrous oxide, are long-lived greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, and so contribute to long-term climate change.
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The consequences of Global Warming can be very harming for the planet, so it is not surprising that professors want their students to contemplate on this striking topic. There are a lot of samples on the internet that will make writing essays on Global Warming easier. In the outline, conclusion and introduction of your papers you have to mention the reasons and consequences of Global Warming, as well as the ways to prevent it.
climate change | Causes, Effects, & Facts | jofadakonisa.ml
Scientists have observed that the average temperature of the Earth has risen considerably over the last century. Humans can be blamed for increasing greenhouse gas emissions, a major cause of temperature rises. This essay analyzes the causes of global warming and suggests ways to reduce Global Warming 2 Pages.