computers past present and future essay

No, technology isn't making us lonely—it's bringing us closer to each other. others, especially introverts, may prefer to beat loneliness by interacting online.

The era is marked by such profound technical advancements like linear perceptivity , double shell domes or Bastion fortresses. Note books of the Renaissance artist-engineers such as Taccola and Leonardo da Vinci give a deep insight into the mechanical technology then known and applied. Architects and engineers were inspired by the structures of Ancient Rome , and men like Brunelleschi created the large dome of Florence Cathedral as a result.

He was awarded one of the first patents ever issued in order to protect an ingenious crane he designed to raise the large masonry stones to the top of the structure. Military technology developed rapidly with the widespread use of the cross-bow and ever more powerful artillery , as the city-states of Italy were usually in conflict with one another.

Powerful families like the Medici were strong patrons of the arts and sciences. Renaissance science spawned the Scientific Revolution ; science and technology began a cycle of mutual advancement. An improved sailing ship, the nau or carrack , enabled the Age of Exploration with the European colonization of the Americas , epitomized by Francis Bacon 's New Atlantis. Pioneers like Vasco da Gama , Cabral , Magellan and Christopher Columbus explored the world in search of new trade routes for their goods and contacts with Africa, India and China to shorten the journey compared with traditional routes overland.

They produced new maps and charts which enabled following mariners to explore further with greater confidence. Navigation was generally difficult, however, owing to the problem of longitude and the absence of accurate chronometers. European powers rediscovered the idea of the civil code , lost since the time of the Ancient Greeks.

The stocking frame , which was invented in , increased a knitter's number of knots per minute from to Mines were becoming increasingly deep and were expensive to drain with horse powered bucket and chain pumps and wooden piston pumps. Some mines used as many as horses. Horse-powered pumps were replaced by the Savery steam pump and the Newcomen steam engine The revolution was driven by cheap energy in the form of coal , produced in ever-increasing amounts from the abundant resources of Britain.

The British Industrial Revolution is characterized by developments in the areas of textile machinery, mining , metallurgy and transport the steam engine and the invention of machine tools. Before invention of machinery to spin yarn and weave cloth, spinning was done using the spinning wheel and weaving was done on a hand and foot operated loom. It took from three to five spinners to supply one weaver. The spinning frame for wool was invented in The spinning jenny , invented in , was a machine that used multiple spinning wheels; however, it produced low quality thread.

The water frame patented by Richard Arkwright in , produced a better quality thread than the spinning jenny. The spinning mule , patented in by Samuel Crompton , produced a high quality thread. In the mid s the steam engine was applied to the water power-constrained iron, copper and lead industries for powering blast bellows. These industries were located near the mines, some of which were using steam engines for mine pumping. Steam engines were too powerful for leather bellows, so cast iron blowing cylinders were developed in Steam powered blast furnaces achieved higher temperatures, allowing the use of more lime in iron blast furnace feed.

Lime rich slag was not free-flowing at the previously used temperatures. With a sufficient lime ratio, sulfur from coal or coke fuel reacts with the slag so that the sulfur does not contaminate the iron. Coal and coke were cheaper and more abundant fuel. As a result, iron production rose significantly during the last decades of the 18th century. Cheap coal meant that industry was no longer constrained by water resources driving the mills, although it continued as a valuable source of power. The steam engine helped drain the mines, so more coal reserves could be accessed, and the output of coal increased.

The development of the high-pressure steam engine made locomotives possible, and a transport revolution followed. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway , the first purpose built railway line, opened in , the Rocket locomotive of Robert Stephenson being one of its first working locomotives used.

Manufacture of ships' pulley blocks by all-metal machines at the Portsmouth Block Mills in instigated the age of sustained mass production. Machine tools used by engineers to manufacture parts began in the first decade of the century, notably by Richard Roberts and Joseph Whitworth. The development of interchangeable parts through what is now called the American system of manufacturing began in the firearms industry at the U.

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S Federal arsenals in the early 19th century, and became widely used by the end of the century. The 19th century saw astonishing developments in transportation, construction, manufacturing and communication technologies originating in Europe. After a recession at the end of the s and a general slowdown in major inventions, the Second Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid innovation and industrialization that began in the s or around and lasted until World War I.

It included rapid development of chemical, electrical, petroleum, and steel technologies connected with highly structured technology research. Telegraphy developed into a practical technology in the 19th century to help run the railways safely. March marks the date that Alexander Graham Bell officially patented his version of an "electric telegraph". Although Bell is noted with the creation of the telephone, it is still debated about who actually developed the first working model.

Building on improvements in vacuum pumps and materials research, incandescent light bulbs became practical for general use in the late s. This invention had a profound effect on the workplace because factories could now have second and third shift workers. Shoe production was mechanized during the mid 19th century.

Steam-powered factories became widespread, although the conversion from water power to steam occurred in England earlier than in the U. Mass production brought automobiles and other high-tech goods to masses of consumers. Military research and development sped advances including electronic computing and jet engines. Radio and telephony improved greatly and spread to larger populations of users, though near-universal access would not be possible until mobile phones became affordable to developing world residents in the late s and early s.

Energy and engine technology improvements included nuclear power , developed after the Manhattan project which heralded the new Atomic Age. Rocket development led to long range missiles and the first space age that lasted from the s with the launch of Sputnik to the mids. Electrification spread rapidly in the 20th century. At the beginning of the century electric power was for the most part only available to wealthy people in a few major cities such as New York, London, Paris, and Newcastle upon Tyne, but by the time the World Wide Web was invented in an estimated 62 percent of homes worldwide had electric power, including about a third of households in [91] the rural developing world.


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Birth control also became widespread during the 20th century. Electron microscopes were very powerful by the late s and genetic theory and knowledge were expanding, leading to developments in genetic engineering. The first " test tube baby " Louise Brown was born in , which led to the first successful gestational surrogacy pregnancy in and the first pregnancy by ICSI in , which is the implanting of a single sperm into an egg. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was first performed in late and led to successful births in July These procedures have become relatively common.

The massive data analysis resources necessary for running transatlantic research programs such as the Human Genome Project and the Large Electron-Positron Collider led to a necessity for distributed communications, causing Internet protocols to be more widely adopted by researchers and also creating a justification for Tim Berners-Lee to create the World Wide Web. Vaccination spread rapidly to the developing world from the s onward due to many successful humanitarian initiatives, greatly reducing childhood mortality in many poor countries with limited medical resources.

The US National Academy of Engineering , by expert vote, established the following ranking of the most important technological developments of the 20th century: [92]. Perhaps the greatest research tool built in the 21st century is the Large Hadron Collider , the largest single machine ever built. The understanding of particle physics is expected to expand with better instruments including larger particle accelerators such as the LHC [93] and better neutrino detectors.

Dark matter is sought via underground detectors and observatories like LIGO have started to detect gravitational waves. Genetic engineering technology continues to improve, and the importance of epigenetics on development and inheritance has also become increasingly recognized. New spaceflight technology and spacecraft are also being developed, like the Orion and Dragon.

New, more capable space telescopes , such as the James Webb Telescope , to be launched to orbit in early , and the Colossus Telescope are being designed. Breakthrough Initiatives , together with famed physicist Stephen Hawking , plan to send the first ever spacecraft to visit another star , which will consist of numerous super-light chips driven by Electric propulsion in the s, and receive images of the Proxima Centauri system, along with, possibly, the potentially habitable planet Proxima Centauri b , by midcentury. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


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  • This article is about the technology in human history. For the book series, see History of Technology book series. For the academic discipline that studies the history of technology, see History of science and technology. For an account of the contemporary use of production techniques, see Technology.

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    Main article: Technology. By technological eras. By historical regions. By type of technology. History of agriculture History of biotechnology History of communication History of computer hardware History of electrical engineering History of manufacturing History of materials science History of measurement History of medicine History of nuclear technology History of transport.

    Technology timelines. Timeline of historic inventions Complete list by category. Article indices. Outline of technology Outline of prehistoric technology. This section needs additional citations for verification. Olduvai stone technology Oldowan 2. Clothing possibly , years ago. Ceramics c. Hominin events for the last 10 million years. Hominin timeline.

    This box: view talk edit. Homo habilis. Homo erectus. Homo sapiens. Earlier apes. Gorilla split. Possibly bipedal. Chimpanzee split. Earliest bipedal. Stone tools.

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    Exit from Africa. Earliest fire use. Earliest cooking. Earliest clothes. See also: Life timeline , and Nature timeline. Main article: Prehistoric technology. Main article: Stone Age. Main article: Ancient technology. Main article: Bronze Age. Main article: Iron Age. Main articles: History of science and technology in China , History of science and technology in Korea , and Science and technology in Japan.

    Main article: History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent. See also: List of Indian inventions and discoveries. Main articles: List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world , Arab Agricultural Revolution , and Science in the medieval Islamic world.

    Main article: Medieval technology. Main article: Renaissance technology. Dome of Florence Cathedral. Main article: Age of Exploration. Main article: Industrial Revolution. Main article: Second Industrial Revolution. Main article: s in science and technology. This section is in list format, but may read better as prose.

    You can help by converting this section , if appropriate. Editing help is available. March Main article: History of biotechnology. Main articles: History of civil engineering and History of construction. Main article: History of communication. Main article: History of computing. History of computing hardware before History of computing hardware s—present History of computer hardware in Soviet Bloc countries History of computer science History of operating systems History of software engineering History of programming languages History of artificial intelligence History of the graphical user interface History of the Internet History of the World Wide Web History of computer and video games.

    Timeline of lighting technology History of textiles and clothing History of materials science Family and consumer science History of knitting History of lensmaking History of the chair History of the umbrella Manufacturing. Main article: History of electrical engineering. Main article: History of energy. Energy History, Use by humans, See also History of coal mining History of perpetual motion machines Timeline of heat engine technology Timeline of steam power Timeline of hydrogen technologies Timeline of alcohol fuel Timeline of nuclear fusion.

    Main article: History of materials science. Main article: History of measurement. Main article: History of medicine. Main article: History of military technology. Main article: History of science and technology. History of telescopes Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology Timeline of microscope technology Timeline of particle physics technology Timeline of low-temperature technology Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology. Main articles: History of transport and Timeline of transportation technology.

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    History of the automobile Timeline of aviation Timeline of jet power Timeline of motor and engine technology Timeline of photography technology Timeline of rocket and missile technology Timeline of communication technology. Science portal Technology portal. History of mathematics History of philosophy History of science Outline of prehistoric technology Science tourism Timeline of historic inventions.

    Critique of technology History of ideas field of study History of science and technology field of study List of independent discoveries Philosophy of technology Technical education Technology Technology Dynamics field of study. High technology Deindustrialization Disruptive innovation List of technologies Simple machine. Retrieved 22 January The University of Alabama — Department of Anthropology. Retrieved 9 April Economic Growth. Westport, CT; London: Praeger. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 8 December BBC News. Retrieved 18 February Encyclopedia Americana. Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 17 May Yearbook of Physical Anthropology.

    Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. The Thomson Corporation. National Geographic News. National Geographic. Retrieved 7 April A History of Metallurgy, Second Edition. London: Maney Publishing, for the Institute of Materials. Potts Maring-Van der December University of Groningen. The Technology of Mesopotamia.

    The Rosen Publishing Group. Woods Ancient Machines: From Wedges to Waterwheels. Ancient Machines: From Grunts to Graffiti. Minneapolis, MN: Runestone Press. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. The Genius of China: years of science, discovery and invention. Berkeley: University of California Press, Joseph The Crest of the Peacock , p. Princeton University Press. Handbook of Ancient Water Technology. Technology and Change in History. Wilhelm Schmidt translator.

    Leipzig: B. Live Science. December 23, Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering , pp. Islamic Technology: An illustrated history , p. Cambridge University Press. Wind Machines 2nd ed.

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    Electricity Generation Using Wind Power 1 ed. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Tradition und Innovation 4th ed. Mann Verlag, pp.

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    Emrys Chew, Organised Sound. Oxford reference. Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. University of Toronto Press. New York: Simon and Schuster. University Of Chicago Press. Charolttesville: University Press of Virginia. Short History of the British Industrial Revolution.

    Retrieved 6 February Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. University of North Carolina Press. Car and Driver. Retrieved 26 March Archived from the original on 13 April Brush, S. Ames: Iowa State University Press. New York: Dover Publications. Kranzberg, Melvin and Pursell, Carroll W. McNeil, Ian An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. London: Routledge. Olby, R. Companion to the History of Modern Science. New York, Routledge. Vols 6 and 7, , ed. Individuals and communities without functional access to the Internet and other information technology will have far fewer opportunities for economic development and wealth creation than those with access to the technology Berger, ; Hohman, ; Lanier, ; United Nations, In light of the fact that the Internet offers tremendous potential as a tool for health promotion and that lack of access to the Internet actually may widen the disparities of health and well-being for individuals, communities and entire societies, it is imperative that health education researchers and practitioners develop effective Internet-based health promotion programs while working vigilantly to increase functional access to the Internet among the most underserved communities and populations.

    Our efforts toward the latter goals should focus on two separate but related issues: access and content. Our guiding principal for these efforts, originally proposed by Dorothy Nyswander Nyswander, and recently updated by Caroline Wang Wang, , should be to start where the people are , and to help them access information technology in a manner that is appropriate, effective and respectful of their individual and collective needs and perspectives. The underlying economic and social reasons that many do not have access to information technology are the same reasons that so many do not have access to adequate healthcare: cost, geographic barriers, literacy, language, culture, disability, and other factors related to the ability to use services appropriately and effectively Eng et al.

    In other words, increasing access to the Internet is far more difficult than simply providing people with affordable computers and modems.

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    The ideal location for Internet access that maximizes its positive potential is to be connected from the privacy of one's home Eng et al. For example, at least 6. Until wireless data-transfer technologies become widely available, affordable and capable of handling sufficient bandwidth, alternative strategies for providing access will be necessary. One such approach that is gaining momentum in both industrialized and developing countries is the creation of Internet public access points Eng et al.

    However, community technology centers must be developed with the input, involvement and ownership of the local community if they ultimately are to be accepted and effectively used by the community. Time-tested health education strategies such as community diagnoses and needs assessments can help determine communities' needs, assets, characteristics and preferences regarding information technology, and techniques such as community organizing can help facilitate local ownership and involvement in the development of a center.

    Community technology centers also need to provide people the opportunity to express themselves, and to create their own content and presence on the Internet. It is important to remember that connecting underserved people to the Internet is not only about what the Internet can give to them, it also is about what they can give to the Internet and, in so doing, to the rest of the world.

    Unfortunately, reducing the digital divide will require more than just increasing physical access to the technology. There are other complex reasons that people do not use the Internet that must be addressed as well Carvin, ; Cisler, ; Light, One important area that requires attention is expanding, updating and revamping Internet content. A recent study by The Children's Partnership found that existing content on the World Wide Web does not meet the content needs of underserved communities Lazaras and Mora, They strongly recommend that there to be more of the following on the Internet: 1 local-oriented content, particularly about employment, education and business development opportunities; 2 information that is less text oriented and more accessible to those with lower literacy skills; 3 information that is available in multiple languages; and 4 information that is created by underserved communities themselves, and that is culturally inclusive and appropriate.

    These four recommendations should be used as a checklist for those developing Internet-based health education programs. Doing so can help to increase functional access to the Internet and ensure that the content is relevant and useful to the collaborating communities. Finally, health education researchers and professionals should work in conjunction with members of governments, industry, communities, and other professional disciplines and organizations to reduce the digital divide.

    Only through our combined efforts and expertise can we bring the necessary resources to bear to address this global division. However, to truly eliminate the divide, efforts must also focus on filling the chasm that lies between both sides. This chasm is deep and wide, and existed long before the Internet was developed.

    However, with continued efforts toward reducing poverty, increasing literacy and empowering communities, we can start filling in the chasm and we can all walk across together. Although information technology and the Internet offer great potential for health education and promotion, there will be many challenges ahead before this potential can be reached. Extensive research and evaluation will be required to develop effective Internet-based health education programs, and to minimize potential risks and harms to receivers of Internet health information.

    Working to close the digital divide is but one issue that should be addressed through research and the appropriate application of health education theories, models, principles and core values. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation.

    Volume Article Contents. Health education and the digital divide: building bridges and filling chasms Jay M. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. References Benton Foundation , February 29 You have to have a telephone! The Digital Beat , 2 , Berger, S. Berry, J.

    Library Journal Digital. Carvin, A. Cisler, S. Silicon Valley In-Depth News. Eng, T. Hafner, K. New York Times News Service.