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Thesis papers in education. Reflective essay about writing. Alessandro warth dissertation. Buy custom written essay. Case study diabetes. Essays study abroad. Personal statement masters degree. Sample of personal essay for college. Websites that write papers for you. Essay water. Essay writing samples for toefl. Physic research paper. Argumentative essay on topics. Dogs essay. How to write a case study report. Title for essay about my life. Research paper topics college english. Do my assignment cheap. Esl writing argument essay.

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Metuchen, N. Klinger, Barbara. Bloomington, Ind. Kuhn, Annette. Cinema, Censorship, and Sexuality, London-New York: Routledge, Mahar, Karen Ward. Women Filmmakers in Early Hollywood. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Feminism and History. Joan Wallach Scott. Linda K. Kerber and Jane Sherron De Hart. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Staiger, Janet. Bad Women. Regulating Sexuality in Early American Cinema.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Stamp, Shelley. Durham: Duke University Press Books, Weber, Lois. Weber, Lois, dir. The Hand that Rocks the Cradle. Casella Women and Nationalism in Indigenous Irish Filmmaking of the Silent Period abstract: Women in Ireland came into focus and onto the political stage during and as a result of nationalist and socialist movements that began in the mids and continued through the s. Indigenous sisters, lovers, and mothers, impacted by rather than impacting historical events.

This is not surprising. Irish silent cinema was a male-dominated industry with a nationalist agenda that perpetuated gender stereotypes. This study links nationalism and women in Irish silent cinema by looking at how female other narratives of the nation. Anna Parnell and other women took over the Land League in after the men were jailed. They fought tenant evictions, held political views, often in opposition to a parliamentary system with Britain, and were generally more militant than their male counterparts Parnell British born Maude Gonne MacBride, who adopted Ireland as her home country, was an early supporter of Land League efforts and took on such causes as the rights of Irish political prisoners and the conditions of women and the poor MacBride 96—97, —; Ward, Maud Gonne 22—24, 65—67, 96—97, and Many women from the north did join their sisters in the south as evident in Urquhart.

In the Days of St. His company initially made the Irish newsreel series, Irish Events. Irish Independent, Jan. Dublin Evening Mail, Dec. Dublin Evening Mail, Jan. Evening Herald, Jan. Irish Times, Jan. Dublin Evening Mail Jan. See also K. Patton did the adaptation for Knocknagow. Guests of the Nation D.

Contemporary sources and archival material were used to determine plots, characters and themes for Fun at a Finglas Fair F. McCormick, prod. James M. Kerrigan, social melodrama, , Puck Fair Romance J. Kerrigan, romantic comedy, , Widow Malone J. Kerrigan, comedy, , The Byways of Fate J.

Kerrigan, social melodrama, , The Irish Girl J. Kerrigan, romantic comedy, , The Upstart J. There is some disagreement over both the credits and whether Land of Her Fathers is indigenously Irish. Transatlantic Pictures as the at the Ifa Hurley who brought over an American director and used a script by a British writer, Donn-Byrne; however he employed Abbey players in his cast.

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The American distributers Hurley hired disappeared in New York with the print and apparently screened it in several US cities. His own copy was presented in to the National Library in Dublin and subsequently disappeared Irish studies on the intersection of Irish nationalism and women in history and literature during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century point to a complex connection between gender and national identity.

Literary studies, like C. Studies connecting nationalism and women, however, have been absent from scholarship on Irish silent cinema. When nationalism is discussed, research focuses on Irish identity, on contemporary cinema. This gendered ideology as maidens, wives and mothers. Rockett and Finn; McIlroy 4—33 ; Slide 1— They are seen as peripheral players in the nationalist struggle, not agents of history.

The other historical melodramas also exclude women from any participation in the political struggles. Knocknagow, scripted by Ulster romance writer Mrs.

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Irish Destiny, which chronicles the events surrounding the Anglo Irish War , features three women: Mrs. However, none of them effect change in prepare for his courier run, and tells the Ira commander of her concerns about his safety. Kitty, however, is motivated only by a desire to protect the budding romance between Moira men, while women are pushed to the side awaiting outcomes that impact them only on the level of the romance.

Ruth Barton explains that the popularity of both Knocknagow and Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn depended on their creation of a national belonging through their presentation of both an imagined and historical past Irish National Cinema To look at throughout Irish history.

As a number of scholars have pointed out, not all women supported nationalist causes. Of those who did, not all contributed outside the domestic sphere Ward, Unmanageable Revolutionaries ; McCarthy In the historical melodrama, social circumstances are intertwined with political events. Romance may or may not be central to the narrative, but is always featured. Ireland a Nation, was screened in , women were actively involved in public efforts at self-determination. Some were speaking up for Home Rule, while others advocated complete independence. By the time Knocknagow and Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn graced the Dublin screens in and respectively, nearly two hundred women had already taken part in the Rising as couriers, gun runners, nurses, doctors, armed combatants, commanders, and ghosts persons prepared to assume the duties for independence.

She moved between the north and the south delivering messages that united the efforts of rebels throughout Ireland 20—21, 31, and A nurse and dispatcher, Kearns was captured and held in Walton Prison in Liverpool for transporting men and weapons. In Ireland this link between women and nationalism is evident in the three foundational female images of Irish national discourse: the pre-Christian sovereignty goddess, the seventeenth-nineteenth century aisling, and the nineteenth century Catholic Republican Irish mother.

One can trace both the aisling and the Irish mother to the sovereignty goddess trope from native Irish tradition. In pre-Christian Ireland the goddess is in Irish mythology as the warrior queen: Queen Medbh of Connacht who in the Ulster cycle brings land and wealth to a marriage, and defends and expands that land in wartime. In late seventeenth century poetry, the more timid aisling enters the national discourse as an embodiment of a suppressed Ireland under British rule. And in the nineteenth century, sovereign, the aisling and the Irish mother.

Feminization of Ireland nation, bearing the burden of threat to that nation. This feminization of Ireland is evident in In the Days of St. Patrick feels a calling to return to Erin, which is suffering under the rule of an oppressive king. This manifests in the form of a dream featuring a collective of women, arms outstretched, beseeching him to return.

When he does, these very same women populate the crowds that come to hear him advocate religious and civil freedom. The female image is the embodiment of a nation not yet formed. This association of women with the land also is evident in the historical melodramas, where nationalist clashes impact both women and the land. Denis is engaged to be married to Moira, but leaves her to run messages for the Ira. In his absence she is abducted by the British informer Beecher, leader of a gang who is raiding the land to make poteen.

Beecher imprisons her in the poteen mill and threatens her with rape. Kathleen Moira. This connection between women and the land is obvious when Denis saves his village and Moira from both Beecher and the Black and Tans Motivated by bigotry, Whitecraft uses anti-Catholic laws to drive Willy away. This sends Helen into a healing. In the end, Willy returns and their mixed religious marriage is an endorsement of a more united Ireland.

Though operating from two different, but related political arguments— present women as symbols of an Irish nation. Corrupt land agents, between Norah and Billy. Daughter of poor tenant farmers, Norah is seriously ill, but the family cannot afford medical care. Flashbacks showing Billy and a healthy Norah walking in the countryside contrast sharply with the escalating evictions that are ripping the Irish from their land.


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Her physical deterioration parallels the violated pastoralism of Knocknagow. At as a tale of simple folk whose innate goodness enables them to overcome injustice. However newspaper advertisements and reviews indicate in the s resonated in a country struggling for political independence from Britain in the s Advertisement.

Irish Independent, Apr. Courtesy of Irish Film Archive. That both Colleen and Rosaleen could be saved in literature brought hope to an Ireland suffering under the economic and political oppression of colonial rulers. The same gender polarities are are inert, passive, and innocent, while male protagonists are strong, active, and knowledgeable. In Willie Reilly and His Colleen Bawn, Helen is helpless in the hands of a jealous suitor who emotionally and physically abuses her, though they are of the Protestants. And in Irish Destiny, Ira in a gendered relationship to the land.

Women are composed in tight frames that reveal their association with an imagined idyllic land. See also Nash, Powers is set during the Land Wars of The Colleen character was a company staple for the Film Company of Ireland fcoI , which produced social melodramas and romantic comedies in addition to the historical melodramas Knocknagow and Willie Reilly and His Colleen Bawn.

Irish Times, May 1, ; Advertisement. Dublin Evening Mail, May 1, The Bioscope Aug. Dublin Evening Mail, Aug. According to a later advertisement in the Evening Herald from the fcoI, When Love Came to Gavin Burke, is interesting for its message about women and marriage. Years later her daughter is faced with the same decision, but follows her heart and marries the man she loves. In the twentieth century, the image assumed mother. The Irish mother was a powerful image in the national discourse surrounding the struggle for self-determination and formation of Irish Free State. Their value resided in their biological role as producer of male warriors for the state, and in their social obligation to transmit Irish culture to their children.

Dublin Evening Mail, Nov. Rockett, 10—11 ; P. Ryan 37—38, Patrick ministry. Irish Destiny home and the Irish mother who never leaves it. Though her physical strength starts to return, her sight does not. Guests of 26 the Nation paints a very different picture of the Irish mother. As the Irish silent period came , the industry already was abandoning its reliance on both nationalist stereotypes and historical melodramas. MacDonagh 11; K. Ireland on Film. However, the universal appeal of the Irish mother is evident in a recut version that removed the nationalist underpinnings.

The story is concerned with old political disturbances and the exploits of the Irish Republican Army. Two nationalist symbols are at the center of this village of Clonmore, Denis comforts his mother. After Denis joins the Ira and fails to return, she physically and emotionally collapses. Courtesy of the Irish Film Archives. Two women worked behind 27 two women: a courier in a minor role and an old woman.

After the prisoners are executed, she is seen saying her rosary in an empty house. The Irish mother holds no symbolic value here. Guests of the Nation provided an alternative view of the nationalist struggle and exposed the stereotype of the Irish mother 29 Irish Destiny and Guests of the Nation 30 however, with their images of innocent maidens aislings , suffering 31 Irish mothers and virulent male rebels resonated with audiences of the period. The popularity through cultural practices. Both Knocknagow and Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn had long runs with packed houses and repeated screenings in later years.

It seemed very natural. Slide explains in The Cinema and Ireland left to work abroad in the s 10, 11, 47, 82, Courtesy of the Board of Trinity College, Dublin. When In the Days of St. The gendered images of Irish nationalism extended beyond cinematic practices and into the political rhetoric of the period. In the same period women emerged stereotypes of early Irish cinema. Before her arrest, she is hiding important papers, helping the men escape and running messages. Already a condemned man, he urges her to inform on him to save herself. It was not for you we did it.

Historically, both genders helped forge a common history of struggle for self-determination in Ireland. Women were active in eighteenth century rebellions, helped run the nineteenth century Land League, and were contributors to Irish republicanism in the early twentieth century. However, silent cinema in Ireland favored images of women more palatable to the patriarchal national consciousness.

As such, Irish women in all their diversity remained absent from early indigenous Irish cinema. Donna R. Casella is the director of the Film Studies Program at Minnesota State screenwriters of the silent era. Adams, Bernard. Denis Johnston: A Life. Dublin: Lilliput, British Kinematograph Weekly 13 Sept.

Dublin Evening Mail 12 Aug. Dublin Evening Mail 30 Dec. Dublin Evening Mail 11 Jan. Dublin Evening Mail 1 May 4. Dublin Evening Mail 28 Jan. Dublin Evening Mail 20 Nov. Evening Herald 9 Jan. Evening Herald 11 Jan. Evening Herald 16 May 2. Evening Herald 3 May 2. Irish Independent 11 Jan. Irish Independent 24 Apr. Irish Times 7 Aug. Irish Times 9 Jan. Irish Times 10 Jan. Irish Times 11 Jan. Irish Times 1 May 6. The Bioscope 24 Aug. Anne Devlin. Pat Murphy. Anthias, Floya, and Nira Yuval-Davis.

John Hutchinson and Anthony D Smith. London: Routledge, Barton, Ruth. Irish national cinema. Ireland in Proximity. History, Gender, Space. Behan, Kathleen Kearney, and Brian Behan. London: Hutchinson, The Bioscope 14 Sept. Bitel, Lisa. Gender, Authority and Worship in Early Ireland. Alan Hayes and Diane Urquhart. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, Burns-Bisogno, Louisa. Jefferson, N. By Accident. Norris Davidson. Irish Amateur Films, Byrne, Francis J.

Irish Kings and High-Kings. Dublin: Four Courts Press, Carlton, William. London, Carson, Ciaran, tran. London: Penguin, Celtic Film Company File. Irish Times 16 Sept. Maria Luddy and Cliona Murphy. Swords, IE: Poolbeg Press, Clarke, Kathleen. Kathleen Clarke: Revolutionary Woman. Helen Litton. X Martin. Dublin: Brown and Nolan, Pat McGlynn. Belfast: Republican Publications, Condon, Denis. Early Irish Cinema: We Shall Rise Again. London: Mosquito Press, Trinity College, Dublin. Correspondence Between Denis Johnston and P.

Coulter, Carol. Cork: Cork University Press, Crilly, Anne. Mother Ireland. Derry Film and Video Collective, Cullingford, Elizabeth Butler. John MacDonagh. Film Company of Ireland [fcoI Daly, Mary E. Women and work in Ireland. Dundalk: Dundalgan Press, Dean, Joan. The Anne Devlin Jail Journal. John J. Cork: Mercier Press, Donnelly, Mary.

Fallon, Charlotte H. Dublin: Mercier Press, Film Company of Ireland File. Finegan, John J. Dublin: Elo Publications, Flynn, Arthur. The Story of Irish Film. Dublin: Currach Press, Gantz, Jeffrey, tran.


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Early Irish Myths and Sagas. Gibbons, Luke. Guests of the Nation. Denis Johnston. Mary Manning. Constance Markievicz: Irish revolutionary. London: Pandora, Hearne, Dana. Hill, Myrtle. Women in Ireland: A Century of Change.

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Belfast: Blackstaff, Hywel, Elin Ap. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, Norman Whitten. Killester, Innes, Catherine Lynette. Woman and Nation in Irish Literature and Society, New York: Harvester, Ireland a Nation. Walter MacNamara. Irish Destiny. George Dewhurst. Eppels Films, Irish Film Institute, Irish Film Society Programme. Jackson, Kenneth Hurlstone, tran. The Celtic Miscellany. Screen Johnston, Denis.

Miscellaneous Notebooks. DJ Papers. Trinity College,, Dublin. Kearns, Linda. Brendan Clifford. A Belfast Magazine 16 Mar. Kickham, Charles J. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, Kirkpatrick, Kathryn J. Dublin: Wolfhound Press, Kristeva, Julia. Nations Without Nationalism.

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London: Bounty Books, Land of Her Fathers. Herbert Hall Winslow. Transatlantic Pictures, Loftus, Belinda. Dundrum, Co. Down: Picture Press, Lyons, Laura. MacBride, Maud Gonne. A Servant of the Queen: Reminiscences. Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, MacDonagh, John. Dublin: Dublin Arts Festival, Mangan, James Clarence. Thomas Kinsella. Marreco, Anne. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Martin, Peter. Censorship in the Two Irelands: McCarthy, Cal. Cumann na mBan and the Irish Revolution. Cork: Collins Press, McIlroy, Brian. World Cinema 4: Ireland.

Trowbridge: Flicks Books, McLoone, Martin. Valentina Vitali and Paul Willemen. London: bfI, Meaney, Geradine. Ailbhe Smyth. Dublin: Attic Press, Michael Farrell File. Morris, Pam, ed. London: Edward Arnold, Murphy, Kathleen. Nash, Catherine. Brian Graham. Cortez, Alyson B. Ribeiro, Edson C. Neto, Valberto E. Rodrigues, Thomaz Maia de Almeida. Bashir Zeimarani, M. Costa, Nilufar Z. Nurani, Cicero F.

Costa Filho. Felipe A. Araujo, Eduardo B. Rodrigues, Renan C. Moioli, Mariana F. Araujo et al. Da-Silva, Antonio Mauricio F.

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